A Brief Overview of Modal Verbs and Their Substitutes
Main meanings of modal verbs and their substitutes are given in the first column, together with brief notes on usage. For example, affirmative and negative statements and questions mean that this modal verb or substitute is generally used in these types of sentences in the specified meaning. As there are many restrictions or change of meaning in the use of modal verbs with a negative or in questions, more detailed notes on usage are given in the materials on specific modal verbs. An empty cell means that the indicated modal verb is generally not used in the indicated tenses in this meaning.