Печатать книгуПечатать книгу

Pronouns

Pronouns

Сайт: Санкт-Петербургский центр оценки качества образования и информационных технологий
Курс: Английский язык (10 класс)
Книга: Pronouns
Напечатано:: Гость
Дата: Saturday, 14 December 2019, 23:11

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:
number: singular ( I) or plural (we)
person: 1st person ( I), 2nd person (you) or 3rd person ( he)
gender: male (he), female (she) or neuter (it)
case: subject (we) or object ( us)
We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". When I am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not your name. When I am talking about another person, say John, I may start with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on.

Here are the personal pronouns

number

person

gender

          personal pronouns

singular

1st

male/female

subject

object

2st

male/female

I

me

3st

male

you

you

female

he

him

neuter

she

her

 

 

it

it

plural

1st

male/female

we

us

2st

male/female

you

you

3st

male/female/ neuter

they

them

 

Possessive Pronouns

We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).

We use possessive pronouns depending on:

number: singular ( mine) or plural (ours)

person: 1st person ( mine), 2nd person ( yours) or 3rd person (his)

gender: male (his), female (hers)

 

Below are the possessive pronouns

singular

1rd

male/female

mine

2rd

male/female

yours

3rd

male

his

female

hers

plural

1rd

male/female

ours

2rd

male/female

yours

3rd

male/female/ neuter

theirs

 

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrate (verb): to show; to indicate; to point to

A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things:

Near in distance or time (this, these)

Far in distance or time (that, those)

 

 

near

far

singular

this

that

plural

these

those

 

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite". Some typical indefinite pronouns are:

all, another, any, anybody/anyone, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone

Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below, with examples, as singular, plural or singular/plural.

Notice that a singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also agree (in number and gender). Look at these examples:

Each of the players has a doctor.

I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.

Similarly, plural pronouns need plural agreement:

Many have expressed their views.

Meanings

 

pronoun

meaning

                                                                  singular

another

an additional or different person or thing

anybody/anyone

no matter what person

anything

no matter what thing

each

every one of two or more people or things, seen separately

either

one or the other of two people or things

enough

as much or as many as needed

everybody/everyone

all people

everything      

all things

less

a smaller amount

little

a small amount

much

a large amount

neither

not one and not the other of two people or things

nobody/no-one

no person

nothing

no single thing, not anything

one

an unidentified person

other

a different person or thing from one already mentioned

somebody/someone

an unspecified or unknown person

something

an unspecified or unknown thing

you

an unidentified person (informal)

                                                         plural

both

two people or things, seen together

few

a small number of people or things

fewer

a reduced number of people or things

many

a large number of people or things

others

other people; not us

several

more than two but not many

they

people in general (informal)

                                         singular or plural

all

the whole quantity of something or of some things or people

any

no matter how much or how many

more

a greater quantity of something; a greater number of people or things

most

the majority; nearly all

none

not any; no person or persons

some

an unspecified quantity of something; an unspecified number of people or things

such

of the type already mentioned

Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Here is an example:

The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.

In the above example, "who":

  • Relates to "person", which it modifies
  • Introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"

There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that.

Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. In non-defining relative clauses, that is used for things. In defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra information) that can be used for things and people.

Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female.

Interrogative Pronouns

We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The interrogative pronoun represents the thing that we don't know (what we are asking the question about).

There are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which

Notice that the possessive pronoun whose can also be an interrogative pronoun (an interrogative possessive pronoun).

 

subject

object

 

person

who

whom

 

thing

                what

 

person/thing

                which

 

person

                whose

(possessive)