East or West, home is best
East or West, home is best
|Сайт:||Санкт-Петербургский центр оценки качества образования и информационных технологий|
|Курс:||Английский язык (10 класс)|
|Книга:||East or West, home is best|
|Дата:||Sunday, 19 January 2020, 17:50|
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. The last territory lies in the Eastern part of Europe and the Northern part of Asia. Russia is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans. The oceans are: the Atlantic, the Arctic and the Pacific. The seas are: the White sea, the Barents sea, the Okhotsk sea, the Black sea, the Baltic sea and others.
Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the south-east, Finland and Norway in the north-west and so on.
There is hardly a country where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There are over 2 million rivers in Russia. The country is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake, Baikal, is situated in Russia. They say, that the water in the lake is so clear, that if you look down you can even count stones on the bottom. Russia has one sixth of world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East. On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental. In Russia, therefore, you can observe different seasons of the same time in autumn and spring months. For example, in Murmansk and Archangel April is still a winter month, while in Moscow in April spring has already begun. Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper and other mineral resources. Nature has richly bestowed upon Russia all the mineral resources.
The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people. The European part of the country is densely populated, and the most population lives in cities and towns and their outskirts. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people.
Russia is a presidential republic. It is one of the leading powers in the world. Head of State in this country is the President. The government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The President controls each of them. The legislative power is exercised by the Federal Assembly. The executive power belongs to the Government, or the Cabinet of Ministers. The government is headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial power belongs to the system of courts. It consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and other courts.
The nation symbol of Russia is a white-blue-and-red banner. The hymn of Russia was written by Mikhalkov, music was by Aleksandrov. A new national emblem is a two-headed eagle. It is the most ancient symbol of Russia. It originates from the heraldic emblem of the Ruricovitches. All these symbols are official. They have been approved by the Federal Assembly.
At present, the political and the economic situations in the country are rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national economy of Russia. But in spite of the problems there are a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading countries in the world.
Russian is the first language of more than 220 million of people throughout the world, and it is the official language of Russian Federation. It is also spoken to some extent by the 130 million of people. Russian, in fact, is among the 4 most widely spoken languages in the world. Russians have many peculiarities. They are believed to be industrious, tough, suspicious, brave and progressive. They are very hospitable, fond of being with other people and enjoying social life. They have a great sense of patriotism. They are generous, emotional, kind-hearted and loyal to their families. Russians are patriarchal, dogmatic in following conventional values. They are mostly faithful and tradition-loving.
It is a well-known fact that most Russians are patriots of their country: they are usually homesick when they leave Russia for a long period of time, and are usually keen supporters of traditions. Russian people keep up a lot of folk traditions. Many of them are of religious origin and were, actually, banned after the Russian Revolution of 1917 but survived and are now restored. These are all kinds of traditions based on Christianity and the Russian Orthodox Church, like those of Christmas, Lent and Easter.
A well-known Easter tradition is, for example, painting eggs bright colours to symbolize springtime and life, and playing an Easter egg game in which each person takes a hard-boiled, coloured egg. Players make pairs and then tap the ends of their eggs together. First the wide ends of the two eggs are tapped together, then the narrow ends, and finally one wide and one narrow end. When a player's egg breaks, he or she leaves the game, which continues until one player is left with an unbroken egg. The one who wins is considered to be likely to have good luck in everything.
The second group is formed by folk traditions which date back to the times before Christianity, like fortune-telling, some wedding or funeral rituals. The third group is formed by traditions pertaining to official celebrations, like those of the Victory Day when World War II veterans meet in Moscow in front of the Bolshoi Theatre building, and people of all ages come to congratulate them and give them flowers.
Also favourite Russian folk tradition is Maslenitsa, or Pancake Week, which is a combination of Christian and pagan traditions and is the last week before the Lent. There are several reasons why we like it so much. Firstly, we really fond of Russian folk traditions, and Maslenitsa week is full of traditional Russian festival activities: masquerades, snowball fights, sledding and sleigh rides. Secondly, it is a chance to taste traditional Russian food which we don't very often cook nowadays, as we got used to buy ready-made food in supermarkets. The essential element of Maslenitsa celebration is Russian pancakes, made of rich foods like butter, eggs and milk. They are usually eaten with sour cream or caviar. For many Christians, Maslenitsa is the last chance to meet with the worldly delights before the fasting of Lent.
It may be interesting to say some words about Russian food. The wide range of Russian food is really worth exploring. There are many tasty dishes to try, such as Beef Stroganoff, stuffed cabbage leaves, soups, such as borshch, lovely salads, blini, pelmeni, kissel and many others. When Russians invite guests for a meal the table is usually groaning with food.